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CALM Questions per Indiana Standard
Chemistry I - Historical Perspectives
C.2.1Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Explain that Antoine Lavoisier invented a whole new field of science based on a theory of materials, physical laws, and quantitative methods, with the conservation of matter at its core. Recognize that he persuaded a generation of scientists that his approach accounted for the experimental results better than other chemical systems.0
C.2.2Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Describe how Lavoisier’s system for naming substances and describing their reactions contributed to the rapid growth of chemistry by enabling scientists everywhere to share their findings about chemical reactions with one another without ambiguity.1
C.2.3Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Explain that John Dalton’s modernization of the ancient Greek ideas of element, atom, compound, and molecule strengthened the new chemistry by providing physical explanations for reactions that could be expressed in quantitative terms.3
C.2.4Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Explain how Frederich Wohler’s synthesis of the simple organic compound urea from inorganic substances made it clear that living organisms carry out chemical processes not fundamentally different from inorganic chemical processes. Describe how this discovery led to the development of the huge field of organic chemistry, the industries based on it, and eventually to the field of biochemistry.0
C.2.5Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Explain how Arrhenius’ discovery of the nature of ionic solutions contributed to the understanding of a broad class of chemical reactions.0
C.2.6Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Explain that the application of the laws of quantum mechanics to chemistry by Linus Pauling and others made possible an understanding of chemical reactions on the atomic level.16
C.2.7Historical Perspectives of Chemistry: Describe how the discovery of the structure of DNA by James D. Watson and Francis Crick made it possible to interpret the genetic code on the basis of a sequence of “letters.”1
Chemistry I - Principles
C.1.1Properties of Matter: Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures based on physical properties such as density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.50
C.1.2Properties of Matter: Determine the properties and quantities of matter such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, color, numbers of moles, and pH (calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration), and designate these properties as either extensive or intensive.152
C.1.3Properties of Matter: Recognize indicators of chemical changes such as temperature change, the production of a gas, the production of a precipitate, or a color change.28
C.1.4Properties of Matter: Describe solutions in terms of their degree of saturation.2
C.1.5Properties of Matter: Describe solutions in appropriate concentration units (be able to calculate these units), such as molarity, percent by mass or volume, parts per million (ppm), or parts per billion (ppb).62
C.1.6Properties of Matter: Predict formulas of stable ionic compounds based on charge balance of stable ions.67
C.1.7Properties of Matter: Use appropriate nomenclature when naming compounds.51
C.1.8Properties of Matter: Use formulas and laboratory investigations to classify substances as metal or nonmetal, ionic or molecular, acid or base, and organic or inorganic.68
C.1.9The Nature of Chemical Change: Describe chemical reactions with balanced chemical equations.45
C.1.10The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize and classify reactions of various types such as oxidation-reduction.48
C.1.11The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict products of simple reaction types including acid/base, electron transfer, and precipitation.53
C.1.12The Nature of Chemical Change: Demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through laboratory investigations.21
C.1.13The Nature of Chemical Change: Use the principle of conservation of mass to make calculations related to chemical reactions. Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.46
C.1.14The Nature of Chemical Change: Use Avogadro’s law to make mass-volume calculations for simple chemical reactions.22
C.1.15The Nature of Chemical Change: Given a chemical equation, calculate the mass, gas volume, and/or number of moles needed to produce a given gas volume, mass, and/or number of moles of product.46
C.1.16The Nature of Chemical Change: Calculate the percent composition by mass of a compound or mixture when given the formula.30
C.1.17The Nature of Chemical Change: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between molarity, volume, and number of moles of a solute in a solution.55
C.1.18The Nature of Chemical Change: Prepare a specified volume of a solution of given molarity.39
C.1.19The Nature of Chemical Change: Use titration data to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.45
C.1.20The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict how a reaction rate will be quantitatively affected by changes of concentration.3
C.1.21The Nature of Chemical Change: Predict how changes in temperature, surface area, and the use of catalysts will qualitatively affect the rate of a reaction.8
C.1.22The Nature of Chemical Change: Use oxidation states to recognize electron transfer reactions and identify the substance(s) losing and gaining electrons in an electron transfer reaction.36
C.1.23The Nature of Chemical Change: Write a rate law for a chemical reaction using experimental data.7
C.1.24The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize and describe nuclear changes.16
C.1.25The Nature of Chemical Change: Recognize the importance of chemical processes in industrial and laboratory settings, e.g., electroplating, electrolysis, the operation of voltaic cells, and such important applications as the refining of aluminum.12
C.1.26The Structure of Matter: Describe physical changes and properties of matter through sketches and descriptions of the involved materials.24
C.1.27The Structure of Matter: Describe chemical changes and reactions using sketches and descriptions of the reactants and products.37
C.1.28The Structure of Matter: Explain that chemical bonds between atoms in molecules, such as H2, CH4, NH3, C2H4, N2, Cl2, and many large biological molecules are covalent.8
C.1.29The Structure of Matter: Describe dynamic equilibrium.19
C.1.30The Structure of Matter: Perform calculations that demonstrate an understanding of the gas laws. Apply the gas laws to relations between pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.92
C.1.31The Structure of Matter: Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature (Solve problems using pV=nRT).66
C.1.32The Structure of Matter: Describe the possible subatomic particles within an atom or ion.33
C.1.33The Structure of Matter: Use an element’s location in the Periodic Table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.84
C.1.34The Structure of Matter: Use the Periodic Table to compare attractions that atoms have for their electrons and explain periodic properties, such as atomic size, based on these attractions.34
C.1.35The Structure of Matter: Infer and explain physical properties of substances, such as melting points, boiling points, and solubility, based on the strength of molecular attractions.36
C.1.36The Structure of Matter: Describe the nature of ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds and give examples of how they contribute to the formation of various types of compounds.26
C.1.37The Structure of Matter: Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck’s relationship (E=hv).15
C.1.38The Nature of Energy and Change: Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat.19
C.1.39The Nature of Energy and Change: Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using known values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.77
C.1.40The Nature of Energy and Change: Classify chemical reactions and/or phase changes as exothermic or endothermic.9
C.1.41The Nature of Energy and Change: Describe the role of light, heat, and electrical energies in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes.12
C.1.42The Nature of Energy and Change: Describe that the energy release per gram of material is much larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. The change in mass (calculated by E=mc2) is small but significant in nuclear reactions.13
C.1.43The Nature of Energy and Change: Calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half-lives have passed.15
C.1.44The Basic Structures and Reactions of Organic Chemicals: Convert between formulas and names of common organic compounds.8
C.1.45The Basic Structures and Reactions of Organic Chemicals: Recognize common functional groups and polymers when given chemical formulas and names.8
Physics I - Historical Perspectives
P.2.1Historical Perspectives of Physics:Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.0
P.2.2Historical Perspectives of Physics:Describe how Newton’s system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration; his three laws of motion relating to them; and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.0
P.2.3Historical Perspectives of Physics:Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and Earth’s equatorial bulge.0
P.2.4Historical Perspectives of Physics:Describe how the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell used Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law to predict the existence of electromagnetic waves and predict that light was just such a wave. Also understand that these predictions were confirmed by Heinrich Hertz, whose confirmations thus made possible the fields of radio, television, and many other technologies.0
P.2.5Historical Perspectives of Physics:Describe how among the surprising ideas of Albert Einstein’s special relativity is that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light, which is the same for all observers no matter how they or the light source happen to be moving, and that the length of time interval is not the same for observers in relative motion.0
P.2.6Historical Perspectives of Physics:Explain that the special theory of relativity (E=mc2) is best known for stating that any form of energy has mass and that matter itself is a form of energy.0
P.2.7Historical Perspectives of Physics:Describe how general relativity theory pictures Newton’s gravitational force as a distortion of space and time.0
P.2.8Historical Perspectives of Physics:Explain that Marie and Pierre Curie made radium available to researchers all over the world, increasing the study of radioactivity and leading to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so must be made up of smaller parts. Note that these parts were demonstrated by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden to be small, dense nuclei that contain protons and neutrons and are surrounded by clouds of electrons.0
P.2.9Historical Perspectives of Physics:Explain that Ernest Rutherford and his colleagues discovered that the radioactive element radon spontaneously splits itself into a slightly lighter nucleus and a very light helium nucleus.1
P.2.10Historical Perspectives of Physics:Describe how later, Austrian and German scientists showed that when uranium is struck by neutrons, it splits into two nearly equal parts plus two or three extra neutrons. Note that Lise Meitner, an Austrian physicist, was the first to point out that if these fragments added up to less mass than the original uranium nucleus, then Einstein’s special relativity theory predicted that a large amount of energy would be released. Also note that Enrico Fermi, an Italian working with colleagues in the United States, showed that the extra neutrons trigger more fissions and so create a sustained chain reaction in which a prodigious amount of energy is given off.1
Physics I - Principles
P.1.1The Properties of Matter:Describe matter in terms of its fundamental constituents and be able to differentiate among those constituents.2
P.1.2The Properties of Matter:Measure or determine the physical quantities including mass, charge, pressure, volume, temperature, and density of an object or unknown sample.4
P.1.3The Properties of Matter:Describe and apply the kinetic molecular theory to the states of matter.2
P.1.4The Properties of Matter:Employ correct units in describing common physical quantities.17
P.1.5The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Use appropriate vector and scalar quantities to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.19
P.1.6The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Describe and measure motion in terms of position, time, and the derived quantities of velocity and acceleration.11
P.1.7The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Use Newton’s Laws (e.g., F = ma) together with the kinematic equations to predict the motion of an object.15
P.1.8The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Describe the nature of centripetal force and centripetal acceleration (including the formula a = v2/r), and use these ideas to predict the motion of an object.2
P.1.9The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Use the conservation of energy and conservation of momentum laws to predict, both conceptually and quantitatively, the results of the interactions between objects.2
P.1.10The Relationships Between Motion and Force:Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse square nature of gravitational and electrostatic forces.0
P.1.11The Nature of Energy:Recognize energy in its different manifestations, such as kinetic (KE = mv2), gravitational potential (PE = mgh), thermal, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, or mechanical.18
P.1.12The Nature of Energy:Use the law of conservation of energy to predict the outcome(s) of an energy transformation.5
P.1.13The Nature of Energy:Use the concepts of temperature, thermal energy, transfer of thermal energy, and the mechanical equivalent of heat to predict the results of an energy transfer.0
P.1.14The Nature of Energy:Explain the relation between energy (E) and power (P). Explain the definition of the unit of power, the watt.2
P.1.15Momentum and Energy:Distinguish between the concepts of momentum (using the formula p = mv) and energy.0
P.1.16Momentum and Energy:Describe circumstances under which each conservation law may be used.0
P.1.17The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism:Describe the interaction between stationary charges using Coulomb’s Law. Know that the force on a charged particle in an electrical field is qE, where E is the electric field at the position of the particle, and q is the charge of the particle.0
P.1.18The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism:Explain the concepts of electrical charge, electrical current, electrical potential, electric field, and magnetic field. Use the definitions of the coulomb, the ampere, the volt, the volt/meter, and the tesla.0
P.1.19The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism:Analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in series and parallel circuits. Know that any resistive element in a DC circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation), using the formula Power = IV = I2R.0
P.1.20The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism:Describe electric and magnetic forces in terms of the field concept and the relationship between moving charges and magnetic fields. Know that the magnitude of the force on a moving particle with charge q in a magnetic field is qvBsina, where v and B are the magnitudes of vectors v and B and a is the angle between v and B.0
P.1.21The Nature of Electricity and Magnetism:Explain the operation of electric generators and motors in terms of Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law.0
P.1.22The Behavior of Waves:Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics of velocity, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude. Know that radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 ´ 108 m/s (186,000 miles/second).100
P.1.23The Behavior of Waves:Use the principle of superposition to describe the interference effects arising from propagation of several waves through the same medium.10
P.1.24The Behavior of Waves:Use the concepts of reflection, refraction, polarization, transmission, and absorption to predict the motion of waves moving through space and matter.2
P.1.25The Behavior of Waves:Use the concepts of wave motion to predict conceptually and quantitatively the various properties of a simple optical system.0
P.1.26The Behavior of Waves:Identify electromagnetic radiation as a wave phenomenon after observing refraction, reflection, and polarization of such radiation.1
P.1.27The Laws of Thermodynamics:Understand that the temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in it and that the thermal energy is the sum of all the microscopic potential and kinetic energies.2
P.1.28The Laws of Thermodynamics:Describe the Laws of Thermodynamics, understanding that energy is conserved, heat does not move from a cooler object to a hotter one without the application of external energy, and that there is a lowest temperature, called absolute zero. Use these laws in calculations of the behavior of simple systems.0
P.1.29The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Describe the nuclear model of the atom in terms of mass and spatial relationships of the electrons, protons, and neutrons.11
P.1.30The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Explain that the nucleus, although it contains nearly all of the mass of the atom, occupies less than the proportion of the solar system occupied by the sun. Explain that the mass of a neutron or a proton is about 2,000 times greater than the mass of an electron.0
P.1.31The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Explain the role of the strong nuclear force in binding matter together.0
P.1.32The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Using the concept of binding energy per nucleon, explain why a massive nucleus that fissions into two medium-mass nuclei emits energy in the process.0
P.1.33The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Using the same concept, explain why two light nuclei that fuse into a more massive nucleus emit energy in the process.0
P.1.34The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Understand and explain the properties of radioactive materials, including half-life, types of emissions, and the relative penetrative powers of each type.1
P.1.35The Nature of Atomic and Subatomic Physics:Describe sources and uses of radioactivity and nuclear energy.0

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